The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament

The Holy Spirit is active during the Old Testament. At creation, we find that the Spirit of God is hovering above the waters. During the exodus from Egypt, the time of the first kings, and most notably during the ministry of the prophets, the Holy Spirit is active. But despite the wide ministry of the Holy Spirit during all of this period, what the Old Testament believers saw was just a small deposit of what was to come.

For example, in Numbers 11:17 we read that “God will take of the spirit that is on you [Moses] and put the spirit on them.” (The “them” are Israel’s elders.) God did exactly what he promised, and “when the spirit rested on them, they prophesied, but they did not do so again.” (11:25) The narrator goes on to tell us that two elders, Eldad and Medad, were not with the others. “Yet the spirit also rested on them, and they prophesied in the camp.” Moses, brushing aside Joshua’s concerns, exclaimed, “I wish that all the Lord’s people were prophets and that the Lord would put his spirit on them!” (11:29)

This vignette from the Pentateuch illustrates perfectly the nature of the Holy Spirit’s presence in the Old Testament. 1) The event is exceptional: the Holy Spirit came on little more than a few hundred men in the thousands of years than encompass the Old Testament. 2) The event is transitory: the Holy Spirit came, then went.

And yet there was a hope (you might say a prophecy), that one day all of the Lord’s people would be prophets and the Lord would put His Spirit on them.

Here today, gone tomorrow

The historical books continue these themes. We read of the Spirit of the Lord coming up on selected leaders of God’s people, such as Othniel (Judges 3:10), Gideon (6:34), Jephthah (11:29), and others. Each time the spirit came, it came on just one man who immediately went on to complete a mighty act requiring power or wisdom, or to speak a prophetic word. Occasionally the spirit would come on the same individual on more than one occasion. Samson had such an experience on at least three occasions (Judges 14:6, 14:19, 15:14), as did Saul (1 Samuel 10:10, 11:6, 19:23).

In the Psalms, the Holy Spirit is just fleetingly described. But we learn that the Spirit is synonymous with the presence of God (51:11, 139:7), and His work involves re-creation (104:30) and guidance (143:10).

It’s not until we get to the major prophets that we start to discover more. Isaiah speaks of the Spirit resting on Messiah (11:2). God confirms “I will put my Spirit on him” (42:1, cf. 61:1), and later “My Spirit, who is on you, and my words that I have put in your mouth will not depart from your mouth…” (59:21). The Spirit also linked to the end of judgement and the beginning of blessing, as Isaiah prophesies of judgement which will continue “till the Spirit is poured upon us from on high” (32:15, cf. 44:3). All this is a far cry from what’s gone before. Just look at the terrifically powerful verbs Isaiah uses. The Spirit who came and went from a handful of Israel’s leaders will rest on Messiah, and be poured out on God’s people.

Ezekiel tells us that under the new covenant God’s people will have a new spirit (11:19, 36:26). We soon find out this is actually God’s Spirit (36:27) who will bring holiness, and even life itself (37:14). Again God promises that “I will pour out my Spirit on the house of Israel” (39:29).

This cry is taken up by Joel (2:28-9) who adds more detail. This pouring out will produce prophecy, and will impact young and old, and even both male and female. Again, this is a long way from what has been experienced until then – tiny drops of the Spirit’s blessing impacting men (no women are explictly said to have experienced the Spirit in the Old Testament), and only elders and leaders.

Clearly, God is going to do something big. But not yet. We must not rush into the New Testament without reminding ourselves that there is a four hundred year gap between Malachi and Matthew. Four hundred years characterised by one thing above all others: the complete absence of the Spirit. In the words of the Jewish Midrash “With the death of the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, the holy spirit departed from Israel”.

Articles in this series:

  1. The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament <-- This article
  2. The Promised Holy Spirit – arrived!


  1. Stephen John says

    26 After eight days His disciples were indoors again, and Thomas was with them. Even though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them. He said, “Peace to you!”

    27 Then He said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and observe My hands. Reach out your hand and put it into My side. Don’t be an unbeliever, but a believer.” 28 Thomas responded to Him, “My Lord and my God!” 29 Jesus said, “Because you have seen Me, you have believed.[e] Those who believe without seeing are blessed.” Note that he said My LORD AND my God. The Lord in the old testament, Is JESUS!